Abbreviations

ABMTR Autologous Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry
Allo-SCT Allogeneic stem cell transplantation
AMM Asymptomatic MM
APRIL A proliferation-inducing ligand
ASCT/auto-SCT Autologous stem cell transplant
BAD BCL-XL associated death promoter
BAFF B-cell activating factor
bALP Bone specific alkaline phosphatase
bFGF Basic fibroblast growth factor
BMECs Bone marrow endothelial cells
BMMe Bone marrow microenvironment
BMSCs Bone marrow stromal cells
BRAF v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
CALGB Cancer and Leukemia Group B
CAMDR Cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance
CCL3 CC chemokine ligand 3
CCND1 Cyclin D1 gene
CD138 Syndecan-1
CIBMTR International Center for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research
CIRS Cumulative Illness Rating Scale
CLO Clodronate
CR Complete response/complete remission
CRAB Calcium, renal insufficiency, anemia, or bone lesions
CrCl Creatinine clearance
CRDa Cyclophosphamide-lenalidomide-dexamethasone
CT Computed tomography
CTD Cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone
CTX C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen
CVAD Cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone
dex Dexamethasone
DKK1 Dickkopf 1
DLI Donor lymphocyte infusion
DVT Deep vein thrombosis
DXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
EM Extramedullary involvement
EBMT European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
ECIL European Conference on Infections in Leukemia
EFS Event-free survival
EMA European Medicines Agency
ERK Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
Exp Experimental
FasL Apo-1/CD95 ligand
FGFR3 Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene
FISH Fluorescence in situ hybridization
FKHR Forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma
FLC Free light chain
FRP2 Frizzle related-protein 2
GDF15 Growth differentiation factor 15
GSK3β Glycogen synthase kinase 3β
GVM Graft-versus-myeloma effect
Has1 Hyaluronan synthase 1
Hb Hemoglobin
HDAC Histone deacetylase
HDM High-dose melphalan
HDT High-dose treatment
HGF Hepatocyte growth factor
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
HMCLs Human myeloma cell lines
HoxB Homeobox protein B
IAPs Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins
IBMTR International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry
ICAM1 Intercellular adhesion molecule 1
ICTP C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen generated by metalloproteinase
IFM Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome
IGF1 Insulin-like growth factor 1
IgA/D/E/G/M Immunoglobulin A/D/E/G/M
IGH Immunoglobulin H gene
IKK-α IkappaB kinase alpha
IL-1β/3/6/7 Interleukin 1β /3/6/7
IMiD Immunomodulatory drug
IMWG International Myeloma Working Group
INFα Interferon α
ISS International Staging System
IV Intravenous
JAK2 Janus kinase 2
KRAS Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog
LDH Lactate dehydrogenase
LFA1 Leukocyte/lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1
MAA Marketing authorization application
MAC Myeloablative conditioning
MAF Avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma proto-oncogene
MAPK Mitogen-activated protein kinase
MCL1 Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1
M-CSF Macrophage colony-stimulating factor
MFC Multiparametric flow cytometry
MEK Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
Mel100 Melphalan 100 mg/m2
MGUS Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
MIP1 α Macrophage inflammatory protein 1α
MM Multiple myeloma
MMP1/2/3 Matrix metalloproteinase 1/2/3
MMSET MM set domain
MoAb Monoclonal antibodies
MP Melphalan-prednisone
MPR Melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide
MPT Melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide
MPV Melphalan-prednisone-bortezomib
MRD Minimal residual disease
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging
MSCs Mesenchymal stem cells
mTOR Mammalian target of rapamycin
n/a Non-applicable
NCAM Neuronal adhesion molecule
n-CR Near-complete response
NFκ B Nuclear factorκB
NGS Next generation sequencing
NRM Non-relapse mortality
ns Not significant
NTX N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen
OC Osteocalcin
ONJ Osteonecrosis of the jaw
OPG Osteoprotegerin
OS Overall survival
PAD Bortezomib-doxorubicin-dexamethasone
PAM Pamidronate
PCL Plasma cell leukemia
PET positron emission tomography
PFS Progression-free survival
PIK3 Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
PINI Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index
POEMS Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes
Pom Pomalidomide
PSGL1 P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1
QOL Quality of life
RANKL Receptor activator of NFκB ligand
Rd Lenalidomide-dexamethasone
Rd18 Lenalidomide-dexamethasone to a fixed duration of 18 cycles
RIC Reduced intensity conditioning
RUNX2 Runt-related transcription factor 2
SC Subcutaneous
SCC Spinal cord compression
SCF Stem cell factor
sCR Stringent complete remission
SDF-1α Stromal cell-derived factor 1α
SLAMF7 Signaling lymphocyte adhesion molecule family 7
sNDA Supplemental new drug application
SNP Single nucleotide polymorphism
SREs Skeletal-related events
STAT3 Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
std Standard
TAD Thalidomide-doxorubicin-dexamethasone
TD Thalidomide-dexamethasone
TGFβ Transforming growth factor β
Thal Thalidomide
TNFα Tumor necrosis factor α
TP53 Tumor protein 53
TRACP-5b Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b
TTP Time to progression
VAD Vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone
VBAD Vincristine-carmustine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone
VBMCP Vincristine-carmustine-melphalan-cyclophosphamide-prednisone
VCAM1 Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1
VD Bortezomib-dexamethasone
VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor
VGPR Very good partial response
VLA4/5 Very late antigen 4/5
VMP Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone
VMPT Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide
VMPT-VT Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide plus bortezomib-thalidomide
Vs Versus
VT Bortezomib-thalidomide
VTD Bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone
VTP Bortezomib-thalidomide-prednisone
ZOL Zoledronic acid